Relevancia de componentes del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-gonadal en la fisiopatología de proteinopatías del sistema nervioso

Kenia Hechevarría Bárzaga, Raúl Aguilera Rodríguez, Dennis Almaguer Gotay, Amarilis Álvarez Sosa, Luis Enrique Almaguer Mederos

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Introducción: Varias proteinopatías del sistema nervioso están asociadas a la ocurrencia de alteraciones en componentes del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-gonadal.

Objetivo: Reflejar la relevancia de componentes del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-gonadal en la fisiopatología de proteinopatías del sistema nervioso.

Material y Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica durante los meses de enero de 2018 a diciembre de 2018. Fueron consultadas bases de datos de referencia, con el uso de descriptores y operadores booleanos. La estrategia de búsqueda avanzada para la selección de los artículos fue empleada, teniendo en cuenta la calidad metodológica o validez de los estudios.

Desarrollo: Fueron identificaron alteraciones del funcionamiento normal del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-gonadal en varias proteinopatías del sistema nervioso. Las alteraciones más frecuentemente reportadas fueron el incremento en los niveles de gonadotropinas, principalmente de la hormona luteinizante, en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, y la disminución de los niveles de testosterona en las enfermedades de Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington y Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica, con el consiguiente agravamiento del fenotipo clínico. Se obtuvieron evidencias de naturaleza preliminar, que fundamentan la posible ocurrencia de disfunción hipotalámica en pacientes con Ataxias espinocerebelosas.

Conclusiones: Aun cuando existen evidencias que demuestran la existencia de un vínculo entre la fisiopatología de proteinopatías del sistema nervioso y alteraciones en componentes del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-gonadal, se requerirán estudios más extensos e integrales para confirmar estas asociaciones y para caracterizar los mecanismos moleculares implicados.

Palabras clave

enfermedades del sistema nervioso, hormona folículo estimulante, hormona luteinizante, sistema hipotálamo-hipofisário, testosterona


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